Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 45-60
Application of New Formulas for the Spiral Arm Formation to Selected Galaxies with Special Patterns
Hongjun Pan, Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
Received: Aug. 20, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 31, 2020;       Published: Sep. 16, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20200803.12      View  221      Downloads  120
Seven special galaxies with very unusual spiral patterns are precisely simulated and studied by recently proposed ROTASE hypothesis with derived mathematical formulas for the spiral arm formation of the galaxies, fully match the prediction of the model. MCG+00-04-051 shows the broken connection of the spiral arms with the ends of the galactic bar, such broken connection is due to the termination of the X-matter emission by the emission-active black hole located at the center of the galaxy. The weak but still visible arm section in the image clearly proves that the disconnected arms do not rotate ahead of the closest bar ends, they actually rotate behind of the other ends of the bar from which they were generated. The galaxy NGC 4548 has apparent broken connection of spiral arms with bar ends in a low-quality image, such broken connection gives false impression that the arms rotate ahead of the galactic bar ends. However, weak and visible arm in the better-quality image clearly proves that the arms rotate behind the bar ends, same as galaxy MCG+00-04-051. ESO325-28 shows a perfect spiral ring pattern. The galaxy NGC 7098 is made of two identical rings, each ring is made of a half inner ring and a half outer ring, the two rings cross each other twice with chain-link style, this is due to the X-matter emission behavior change with time following Gaussian formula. UGC12646 shows the same pattern as NGC 7098 with two rings crossing each other twice with chain-link style. The pattern image of UGC12646 clearly demonstrates that quality of the spiral arms decreases with their age only, not with their distance to the ends of the bar. NGC 1079 shows the most amazing artwork-like double ring pattern, each spiral arm has three arm crossings: it crosses other arm twice and crosses itself once. Galaxy SDSS J015701.50-001644.4 shows a unique two-spiral arm structure, each arm structure is made of a half inner ring and a whole outer ring; the two outer rings cross each other with chain-link style. The result also shows that the galaxy NGC 4548 has incomplete or destroyed double ring pattern. The possible formation and evolution sequence of the Hoag’s object is illustrated with images of real galaxies. Pitch angles of spiral arms can be easily calculated after successful simulation of spiral patterns. The new formulas will be a new member of mathematical spiral equation family and have potential applications in architectures, industrious designs, artwork creations and descriptions of natural objects.
Spiral Galaxies, Spiral Simulation, Galaxy Evolution, Black Holes, Hydrogen Production, X-matter Conversion
To cite this article
Hongjun Pan, Application of New Formulas for the Spiral Arm Formation to Selected Galaxies with Special Patterns, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 45-60. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20200803.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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