Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 45-60
Application of New Formulas for the Spiral Arm Formation to Selected Galaxies with Special Patterns
Hongjun Pan, Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
Received: Aug. 20, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 31, 2020;       Published: Sep. 16, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20200803.12      View  69      Downloads  63
Abstract
Seven special galaxies with very unusual spiral patterns are precisely simulated and studied by recently proposed ROTASE hypothesis with derived mathematical formulas for the spiral arm formation of the galaxies, fully match the prediction of the model. MCG+00-04-051 shows the broken connection of the spiral arms with the ends of the galactic bar, such broken connection is due to the termination of the X-matter emission by the emission-active black hole located at the center of the galaxy. The weak but still visible arm section in the image clearly proves that the disconnected arms do not rotate ahead of the closest bar ends, they actually rotate behind of the other ends of the bar from which they were generated. The galaxy NGC 4548 has apparent broken connection of spiral arms with bar ends in a low-quality image, such broken connection gives false impression that the arms rotate ahead of the galactic bar ends. However, weak and visible arm in the better-quality image clearly proves that the arms rotate behind the bar ends, same as galaxy MCG+00-04-051. ESO325-28 shows a perfect spiral ring pattern. The galaxy NGC 7098 is made of two identical rings, each ring is made of a half inner ring and a half outer ring, the two rings cross each other twice with chain-link style, this is due to the X-matter emission behavior change with time following Gaussian formula. UGC12646 shows the same pattern as NGC 7098 with two rings crossing each other twice with chain-link style. The pattern image of UGC12646 clearly demonstrates that quality of the spiral arms decreases with their age only, not with their distance to the ends of the bar. NGC 1079 shows the most amazing artwork-like double ring pattern, each spiral arm has three arm crossings: it crosses other arm twice and crosses itself once. Galaxy SDSS J015701.50-001644.4 shows a unique two-spiral arm structure, each arm structure is made of a half inner ring and a whole outer ring; the two outer rings cross each other with chain-link style. The result also shows that the galaxy NGC 4548 has incomplete or destroyed double ring pattern. The possible formation and evolution sequence of the Hoag’s object is illustrated with images of real galaxies. Pitch angles of spiral arms can be easily calculated after successful simulation of spiral patterns. The new formulas will be a new member of mathematical spiral equation family and have potential applications in architectures, industrious designs, artwork creations and descriptions of natural objects.
Keywords
Spiral Galaxies, Spiral Simulation, Galaxy Evolution, Black Holes, Hydrogen Production, X-matter Conversion
To cite this article
Hongjun Pan, Application of New Formulas for the Spiral Arm Formation to Selected Galaxies with Special Patterns, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 45-60. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20200803.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Hubble, E. P. (1927). The Classification of Spiral Nebulae. The Observatory. 50: 276.
[2]
Hubble, E. P. (1936), Mrs. Hepsa Ely Silliman memorial lectures, 25. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 780300025002.
[3]
McVitte, G., Payne-Gaoschkin, C., (1951). nA model of A spiral galaxy, MNRAS 111 (5), 506-522.
[4]
Lin C., Shu F., (1964). On the spiral structure of disk galaxies. ApJ. 140, 646.
[5]
Shu F., (2016). Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory (2016)., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 54, 667.
[6]
Julian, W., A. Toomre, A., (1966). Non-axisymmetric responses of differentially rotating disks of stars, ApJ. 146, 810.
[7]
Contopoulos, G., Grosbol, P., (1986). Stellar dynamics of spiral galaxies: nonlinear effects at the ¼ resonance, 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 155, 11-23.
[8]
Contopoulos, G., Grosbol, P., (1988). Stellar dynamics of spiral galaxies: self-consistent models, Astron. Astrophys. 197, 83-89.
[9]
Binney, J., Tremaine, S., 1987, Galactic Dynamics, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
[10]
Sellwood, J., Sparke, L., (1988). Pattern speeds in barred spiral galaxies, MNRAS. 231, 25-31.
[11]
Pan, H., (2019). New Formulas and Mechanism for the Spiral Arm Formation of Galaxies, IJP, 7 (3), 73-85, DOI: 10.12691/ijp-7-3-2.
[12]
Pan, H., (2005). Application of fluid mechanics to dark matter, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A., 20 (14), 3135-3137.
[13]
Crowther, P., et al. (2010). NGC 300 X-1 is a Wolf–Rayet/black hole binary, MNRAS. 403, L41–L45.
[14]
Romani, R., (1998). A census of low mass black hole binaries, Astron. Astrophys. 333, 583–590.
[15]
Liu, J., et al. (2019). A wide star–black-hole binary system from radial-velocity measurements, Nature, 575, 620.
[16]
Dias, W., Lepine, J., (2005). Direct Determination of the Spiral Pattern Rotation Speed of the Galaxy, ApJ. 629, 825-832.
[17]
Seigar, M., James, P., (1998). The structure of spiral galaxies—II. Near-infrared properties of spiral arms”, MNRAS. 299, 685-698.
[18]
Conselice C., Wilkinson A., Duncan K., Mortlock, A., (2016). The Evolution of Galaxy Number Density at z < 8 and Its Implications, ApJ, 830, 83.
[19]
Buta, R., (1995) The catalog of southern ringed galaxies, ApJS. 96, 39-116.
[20]
Buta, R., (2017) Galactic rings revisited. II. Dark gaps and the locations of resonances in early-to-intermediate-type disc galaxies, MNRAS. 470, 3819–3849.
[21]
Sellwood, J., Carlberg, R., (2019). Spiral instabilities: mechanism for recurrence, MNRAS. 489, 116-131.
[22]
Abuter, R., et. al., (2020). Detection of the Schwarzschild precession in the orbit of the star S2 near the Galactic centre massive black hole, A&A 636, L5 https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202037813.
[23]
Peterken, T., et. al., (2019). A direct test of density wave theory in a grand-design spiral galaxy, Nature Astronomy, 3, 178–182.
[24]
Hawking, S., (1998). A brief history of time, (Bantam Books, NY, NY), pp 10. ISBN 0-553-10953-7.
Browse journals by subject